Selasa, 19 Mei 2009


[VERB] + s/es in third person

  1. You speak English.
  2. Do you speak English?
  3. You do not speak English.

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.

  • I play tennis.
  • She does not play tennis.
  • Does he play tennis?
  • The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.
  • The train does not leave at 9 AM.
  • When does the train usually leave?
  • She always forgets her purse.
  • He never forgets his wallet.
  • Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
  • Does the Sun circle the Earth?

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.

  • Cats like milk.
  • Birds do not like milk.
  • Do pigs like milk?
  • California is in America.
  • California is not in the United Kingdom.
  • Windows are made of glass.
  • Windows are not made of wood.

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.

  • The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
  • The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM.
  • When do we board the plane?
  • The party starts at 8 o'clock.
  • When does class begin tomorrow?
Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.

  • I am here now.
  • She is not here now.
  • He needs help right now.
  • He does not need help now.
  • He has his passport in his hand.
  • Do you have your passport with you?


Gratitude, the way to said thank you to other people.

  • è To express gratitude you can say :
  • * Thank you
  • * I’m greatful
  • * I want to thank …
  • * I want to express my gratitude to …
  • * I keep forgetting to thank you for ..

  • è Respone of expressing :
  • * You are welcome
  • * Don’t mention it
  • * Not at all
  • * It was nothing at all
  • * No problem
  • * Glad to be help

Congratulation, to said “good” for other people.

è To express congratulation you can say :

* Let me congratulate you

* Congratulation on your success

* Good

* That’s great

* Isn’t that wonderful

* How fortunate

* Splendid

* Prety good

è Respone of expressing :

* Thank you

* Thanks, I needed that

* That’s very kind of you

* You’ve made my day

* Some to you


Example congratulation :

Dialogue 1 :

Roy : Who won the football match yesterday?

Tom : Our team did. We won three to one

Roy : Congratulation. I’m glad to hear it

Tom : Thank you

Dialoge 2:

Betty : Happy birthday, Marry. Many happy return of the day

Marry : Thank you, Betty. You are the first me who congratulates me

Betty : Oh realy? Here is a little present for you. I hope you like it.

Marry : Thank you very much. You are realy my best friend.

Compliment, to give praising to other people. Some people use compliment to “better up” some day or to flatter in order increase good will.

You compliment some one, for example :

  • Ø On his / her general appearance
  • Ø If you notice something new about the person’s appearance
  • Ø When you visit someone’s
  • Ø House for the first time
  • Ø When other people do their best

è Expressing :

* What a nice dress

* You look great

* You look very nice

* Good grades

* Excellent

* Nice work


Advertisement is information persuade and motive people so that attracted to service ang things that offer.
  • Fungtion of advertisement :
  • Promotion
  • Communication
  • Information

We can find the advertisement on newspaper, tabloid, magazine, radio, television, billboard, etc.

  • è Kinds of advertisement :
  • * Family advertisement
  • * Announcement advertisement
  • * Invitation advertisement
  • * Request advertisement
  • * Offer advertisement
  • * Sponsor advertisement

Article advertisemenIn making an advertisement, keep the following points :
  • * The contents of advertisement must objective and honest
  • * Short and clean
  • * Doesn’t allude other or producer
  • * Use word that polite and logical
  • * Attract attention

Sabtu, 16 Mei 2009

Direct and Indirect speech

Direct speech is refers to reproducing another person's excact word. We use question marks
(" ").
Indirect speech is refers to reproducing the idea of another person's word.

Example :
1. Comand / request
Direct : Mrs. Chandra said to Vita "Don't wory about it."
Indirect : Mrs. Chandra told Vita not to wory about it.

2. Question
Direct : Vita asked "Are you a journalist?"
Indirect : Vita asked if / whether I was journalist.

3. Statement
Direct : Mr. Chandra said "I worked hard yesterday."
Indirect : Mr. Chandra said that he worked hard the day before

In comand sentences, direct speech can changed to indirect speech with change "Said" to be "Ordered", "Told", and "Forbade".

Example :
1. Direct : Hamid said, "Open the door!"
Indirect : Hamid ordered to open the door.

2. Direct : Hamid said, "Sinta, come here!"
Indirect : Hamid told Sinta to come here.

3. Direct : Hamid said to Andi, "Do not disturb me!"
Indirect : Hamid forbade Andi to disturb him.


When do we use modals?
  • To talk about someone's ability (or inability) to do something
    example: "We can find your house without the street plan."
    "She can't have a daughter that old!"
  • To talk about an action that is necessary (or impossible, or not necessary)
    example: "You must always have your driver's licence when you are driving your car."
    "You needn't carry your passport around with you."
  • To talk about a situation that is possible (or impossible)
    example: "Do be careful with that glass, the baby might knock it over"

A modal verb always has the same form: There is no past form (-ed), no present participle (-ing) and no 3rd persons singular (-s).
Modal verbs come before the subject in questions: example: "May I come to your house for tea?"
Negative forms: Modal verbs have n't or not after them in the negative.
example: "mustn't" - "needn't".

ought to

Modals in the past form

Examples Form Time Reference
He can answer your question.
They should leave early tomorrow.
He had to leave at 7 this morning.
MODAL Simple Verb




He might be joking!

Modal Continuous Form


She can't have been serious!

They might have gone to the country.

Modal Verbs Present Perfect Past
They might have been working at that time Modal Present Perfect Continuous Verb Past


Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.

Example: My bike was stolen.

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:

Example: A mistake was made.

In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).

Form of Passive

Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)

Example: A letter was written.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Examples of Passive Level: lower intermediateLevel 2

Tense Subject Verb Object
Simple Present Active: Rita writes a letter.
Passive: A letter is written by Rita.
Simple Past Active: Rita wrote a letter.
Passive: A letter was written by Rita.
Present Perfect Active: Rita has written a letter.
Passive: A letter has been written by Rita.
Future I Active: Rita will write a letter.
Passive: A letter will be written by Rita.
Hilfsverben Active: Rita can write a letter.
Passive: A letter can be written by Rita.

Examples of Passive Level: upper intermediateLevel 4

Tense Subject Verb Object
Present Progressive Active: Rita is writing a letter.
Passive: A letter is being written by Rita.
Past Progressive Active: Rita was writing a letter.
Passive: A letter was being written by Rita.
Past Perfect Active: Rita had written a letter.
Passive: A letter had been written by Rita.
Future II Active: Rita will have written a letter.
Passive: A letter will have been written by Rita.
Conditional I Active: Rita would write a letter.
Passive: A letter would be written by Rita.
Conditional II Active: Rita would have written a letter.
Passive: A letter would have been written by Rita.

Passive Sentences with Two Objects Level: intermediateLevel 3

Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.

Subject Verb Object 1 Object 2
Active: Rita wrote a letter to me.
Passive: A letter was written to me by Rita.
Passive: I was written a letter by Rita.

As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. Thats why it is usually dropped.

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.

Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.

Example: he says – it is said

Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.

Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.

The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).

Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.